3rd International Conference on Ecology, Ecosystem and Conservation Biology
Ecology Ecosystem 2019Ecology (from Greek: οἶκος, "house" or "living relations"; -λογία, "study of") is the scientific study of the distributions, abundance, and relations of organisms and their interactions with the environment. Ecology includes the study of plant and animal populations, plant and animal communities, and ecosystems. Ecosystems describe the web or network of relations among organisms at different scales of organization. Since ecology refers to any form of biodiversity, ecologists research everything from tiny bacteria's role in nutrient recycling to the effects of tropical rainforest on the Earth's atmosphere. The discipline of ecology emerged from the natural sciences in the late 19th century. Ecology is not synonymous with environment, environmentalism, or environmental science. Ecology is closely related to the disciplines of physiology, evolution, genetics, and behavior.
An ecosystem consists of the biological community that occurs in some locale and the physical and chemical factors that make up its non-living or abiotic environment. There are many examples of ecosystems -- a pond, a forest, an estuary, a grassland. The boundaries are not fixed in any objective way, although sometimes they seem obvious, as with the shoreline of a small pond. Usually, the boundaries of an ecosystem are chosen for practical reasons having to do with the goals of the particular study.Why Chicago?Conference Series Ltd organizes 1000+ Global Events inclusive of 300+ Conferences, 500+ Upcoming and Previous Symposiums and Workshops in USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific societies and publishes 700+ Open access journals which contain over 30000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.‘Homelife’ study of living organisms is termed as ‘ecology’ derived from the word Oikos, a Greek origin stands for ‘home’ gives a clear vision of organism’s environment and organism relationship on how they deal with each other determining their abundance, distribution, and extinction. Now the definition of ecology has been revived as “the study of ecosystems”. Transformation of energy and biogeochemical cycle are the prime exercises that are found in the ecological field, the studies are basically focused on the growth and development of an individual with their changing environment which leads to their abundance or extinction. In due course of time, it has been felt that ecology is the versatile field but it’s a pure science separated from the studies like environmentalism, environmental science, and natural history. Issues like life processes, the impact of environment on population, distribution of organisms and biodiversity of an ecosystem were studied and solved out by an ecologist.Sessions and TracksTrack 1: Sustainability, Ecosystems, and Environment:Ecosystems, whether at the scale of a planet, forest, or urban garden, involve tightly-coupled interactions between social and biophysical processes. Understanding the nature and properties of the resulting feedbacks has its roots in ecosystem science and environmental studies. Sustainable development has two components: “sustainability” and “development.” The basic meaning of the word sustainability is the capacity for continuance indefinitely into the future. Sustainable development has been viewed as an interaction between three systems: biological, economic, and social. Sustainability does not simply mean retaining the material standards of living and environmental preservation. It is a matter of active participation of humankind in the improvement of natural systems and the redesign of global systems that leads to the conservation of our planet for future generations. Inefficient use of land, soils, water, energy, and inappropriate growing of crops and domestic animals are among the major obstacles to sustainable development in improving living standards and the environment. Nutrient cycling Decomposition Ecosystem management Oceans Cultivated landTrack 2 :Ecology and Natural Resource ManagementEcology is the scientific study of the interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. Predicting and maintaining or altering the distribution and abundance of various organisms are the primary goals of natural resource management hence, the effective management of natural ecosystems depends on ecological knowledge. Paradoxically, management of ecosystems often ignores relevant ecological theory and many ecological investigations are pursued without appropriate consideration of management implications. The fundamental thesis of this book is that ecological principles can, and should, serve as the primary basis for the management of natural ecosystems, including their plant and animal populations. Rangeland Ecology and Management focuses on the biological and physical processes of ecosystems and application of this knowledge to sustainable use of range lands. Selection of courses in wildlife or fisheries science, watershed management and Eco hydrology, soil and water science, animal and plant science, or agricultural and resource economics can enhance employment opportunities. Adaptive management Integrated natural resource management Anthropocentrism Eco centrism Renewable resourcesTrack 3: Biodiversity:Biodiversity, a compression of "organic differing qualities," for the most part alludes to the assortment and changeability of life on Earth. A standout amongst the most broadly utilized definitions characterizes it as a part of terms of the changeability inside species, amongst species and between biological communities. It is a measure of the assortment of creatures present in various biological systems. This can allude to hereditary variety, biological system variety, or species variety (number of species) inside a range, biome, or planet. Biodiversity has a tendency to be more prominent close to the equator, which is by all accounts the consequence of the warm atmosphere and high essential profitability. Biodiversity is not conveyed equally on Earth. It is wealthiest in the tropics. Marine biodiversity has a tendency to be most elevated along coasts in the Western Pacific, where ocean surface temperature is most astounding and in the mid-latitudinal band in all seas. There are latitudinal slopes in species differing qualities. Biodiversity for the most part tends to bunch in hotspots, and has been expanding through time, yet will be probably going to moderate later on. Genetic Diversity Species Diversity Ecological Diversity Genetic resources Invasive speciesTrack 4: Community and ecosystem dynamics:A community is the set of all populations that inhabit a certain area. Communities can have different sizes and boundaries. These are often identified with some difficulty. An ecosystem is a higher levels of organization the community plus its physical environment. Ecosystems include both the biological and physical components affecting the community/ecosystem. We can study ecosystems from a structural view of population distribution or from a functional view of energy flow and other processes. Ecosystem dynamics is the study of how ecosystems change over time. Ecosystems are dynamic in nature, subject to regular micro and macro disturbances, both internal and external. Ecosystem dynamics identifies positive and negative feedback loops as the basic mechanism through which biological creatures and whole ecosystems regulate themselves and change over time. The processes through which organisms regulate themselves and their environment in order to maintain a stable state is recognized as one of the defining characteristics of life. It is understood today that all organisms survive by transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment in order to maintain a stable condition conducive to that functionality and this regulation process is central to the dynamics of the organism or ecosystem as it goes through both stable linear and rapid nonlinear processes of change. Ecotones Terrestrial Biomes shrub land Taiga The Fresh water BiomeTrack 5 :Conservation and Management:Conservation management system (CMS) a procedure for maintaining a species or habitat in a particular state. A protection administration framework (CMS) is a system for keeping up an animal groups or natural surroundings in a specific state. It is a method whereby mankind secures untamed life in an ideal condition for examination, instruction or research, in unendingness. It is a critical theme in social environment, where preservation administration offsets unchecked exploitative administration of common assets. Preservation administration frameworks are imperative for transforming practical advancement techniques into fruitful operations. In New Zealand the Department of Conservation develops conservation management strategies in conjunction with the community as a means of prioritizing conservation issues. Conservation Law Land designated for Conservation Physical law of Conservation Economics and Law Conservation of EnvironmentTrack 6: Watershed Ecology:A Watershed is the area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains off of it goes into the same place. Watershed Ecology is the study of watersheds as ecosystems, primarily the analysis of interacting biotic and abiotic components within a watershed’s boundaries. Defining an ecosystem as a functioning natural unit with interacting biotic and abiotic components in a system whose boundaries are determined by the cycles and flux of energy, materials and organisms. Then a watershed is just one of many types of ecosystems. An area of land that drains water, sediment and dissolved materials to a common receiving body or outlet. The term is not restricted to surface water runoff and includes interactions with subsurface water. Watersheds vary from the largest river basins to just acres or less in size. The study of watersheds as ecosystems, primarily the analysis of interacting biotic and abiotic components within a watershed’s boundaries. Watershed ecology is essential knowledge for watershed managers because it teaches us that watersheds have structural and functional characteristics that can influence how human and natural communities coexist within them. The gross structure of a watershed -- its headwaters area, side slopes, valley floor, and water body, as well as its soils, minerals, native plants and animals are, in one sense, raw material for all the human activities that may potentially occur there. The watershed’s natural processes rainfall runoff, groundwater recharge, sediment transport, plant succession, and many others provide beneficial services when functioning properly, but may cause disasters when misunderstood and disrupted. It is crucial for people to understand watersheds and how they work before they make decisions or take actions that may affect important watershed structural or functional characteristics. Arenal Lake watershed Precipitation Dams Surface runoff InfiltrationTrack 7: Climate and Carbon Exchange:Climate is the average weather in a place over many years. While the weather can change in just a few hours, climate takes hundreds, thousands, even millions of years to change. The composite or generally prevailing weather conditions of a region, as temperature, air pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunshine, cloudiness, and winds, throughout the year, averaged over a series of years. A region of the earth having specified climatic conditions his physician advised moving to a warmer climate. The average course or condition of the weather at a place usually over a period of years as exhibited by temperature, wind velocity, and precipitation a healthful climate a warm, humid climate. Carbon trading is a market-based system aimed at reducing greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming, particularly carbon dioxide emitted by burning fossil fuels. Cap and trade schemes have been very effective in tackling environmental problems in the past, with trading in sulphur dioxide permits helping to limit acid rain in the US. The big attraction for governments concerned with stemming CO2 is that carbon trading is much easier to implement than expensive direct regulations and unpopular carbon taxes. Water Cycle Weather and Climate Hydrologic Cycle Regulatory ProfitabilityTrack 8: Hazardous Waste:Hazardous waste is waste that has substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment. Hazardous wastes may be found in different physical states such as gaseous, liquids, or solids. A hazardous waste is a special type of waste because it cannot be disposed of by common means like other by-products of our everyday lives. Depending on the physical state of the waste, treatment and solidification processes might be required. Hazardous-waste management, the collection, treatment, and disposal of waste material that, when improperly handled, can cause substantial harm to human health and safety or to the environment. Hazardous wastes can take the form of solids, liquids, sludge, or contained gases, and they are generated primarily by chemical production, manufacturing, and other industrial activities. They may cause damage during inadequate storage, transportation, treatment, or disposal operations. Improper hazardous-waste storage or disposal frequently contaminates surface and groundwater supplies. People living in homes built near old and abandoned waste disposal sites may be in a particularly vulnerable position. In an effort to remedy existing problems and to prevent future harm from hazardous wastes, governments closely regulate the practice of hazardous-waste management. Toxic wastes are poisons, even in very small or trace amounts. They may have acute effects, causing death or violent illness, or they may have chronic effects, slowly causing irreparable harm. Some are carcinogenic, causing cancer after many years of exposure. Others are mutagenic, causing major biological changes in the offspring of exposed humans and wildlife. Carbon Tax Landfills Food waste and Recovery Recyclable Waste Latex PaintTrack 9:Carbon foot Print:The total amount of greenhouse gases produced to directly and indirectly support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon dioxide is a so called greenhouse gas causing global warming. Other greenhouse gases which might be emitted as a result of your activities are methane and ozone. These greenhouse gases are normally also taken into account for the carbon footprint. They are converted into the amount of CO2 that would cause the same effects on global warming. The carbon footprint is a very powerful tool to understand the impact of personal behaviour on global warming. Today, the term “carbon footprint” is often used as shorthand for the amount of carbon being emitted by an activity or organization. The carbon component of the Ecological Footprint, which we call the carbon Footprint, takes a slightly differing approach. Our carbon Footprint measurement translates the amount of carbon dioxide emissions into the amount of productive land and sea area required to sequester those carbon dioxide emissions. The carbon Footprint is currently 60 percent of humanity’s overall Ecological Footprint and its most rapidly growing component. Humanity’s carbon Footprint has increased 11-fold since 1961. Reducing humanity’s carbon Footprint is the most essential step we can take to end overshoot and live within the means of our planet. Greenhouse gas Consumption Nature Conservancy Yard Waste Paper ConsumptionTrack 10:Consumerism:Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts. The theory that an increasing consumption of goods is economically desirable also a preoccupation with and an inclination toward the buying of consumer goods. Consumerism describes the shift in American culture from a producer-oriented society in the nineteenth century to a "consumerist" society in the twentieth century. Changes in domestic demographics and advances in industrialization, manufacturing, transportation, and communication all contributed to the change. Consumerism also contributed greatly to the liberal thrust of the Progressive Era and spawned a long-running trend of consumer advocacy and consumer protection legislation. Consumerism can be defined as an economic and social ideology and order that encourages consumption or acquisition of goods/services in a never-ending cycle. Consumerism encourages purchasing and consumption of goods and services in excess of a person’s basic needs. Consumerism can be traced back to the onset of capitalism in the 16th century in Europe. Consumerism intensified in the eighteen century because of a growing middle class that embraced luxury consumption. The eighteen century also saw an increasing interest in fashion rather than necessity as a determinant for purchasing. The growth of consumerism can also be attributed to politics and economics. For countries to thrive politically and economically, capitalist competition for profits and markets had to be at the core of every country’s agenda. Colonialism has also been attributed as one of the major drivers of consumerism. Ethical consumerism Consumption Mass Production Consumer exploitation CampaignPlease contact the event manager Marilyn (marilyn.b.turner(at)nyeventslist.com ) below for:- Multiple participant discounts- Price quotations or visa invitation letters- Payment by alternate channels (PayPal, check, Western Union, wire transfers etc)- Event sponsorshipNO REFUNDS ALLOWED ON REGISTRATIONSPrices may go up any time. 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